Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrate Animals

To minimize the use of animals in research, UW-Madison is committed to "the Three R's"

  • Reduction--using the least number of animals necessary for statistically valid scientific results
  • Replacement--using non-animal alternatives (e.g., cell culture) or choosing a species lower on the phylogenetic tree (e.g.., mice instead of monkeys)
  • Refinement--choosing methods and experimental procedures that minimize pain and distress in research animals (e.g., using laparoscopic techniques rather than laparotomy; defining endpoints as early in a disease process as possible)

Investigators must consider alternatives to animal use (mandated by the AWA) and be prepared to address this in their protocols.

Resources for alternative/refined experimental methods:

After-Hours Emergency Veterinarian