Normative Data

Normative Data for the Cat

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 9–14 lbs
Female 9–11 lbs
Body Temperature 100–102.2°F
Food Consumption 60–80 Kcal/kg/day
Water Consumption 60 ml/kg/day
Blood and Oxygen
Systolic Blood Pressure 110–160 mmHg
Diastolic Blood Pressure 55–100 mmHg
Plasma Volume 37–49 ml/kg
Whole Blood Volume 62–66 ml/kg
Plasma pH 7.35
Plasma CO2 36.8 mmol/L
Heart Rate 140–200 beats/min
Tidal Volume 10–15 ml/kg
Respiration Rate 20–40 breaths/min
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 17% of body weight
Housing Conditions
Temperature 64–84°F
Humidity 30–70%
Hematology
Leukocyte count 3.7–20.5 x 103/μl
Neutrophils 1.3–15.7 x 103/μl
Lymphocytes 1.0–7.9 x 103/μl
Monocytes 0.0–1.0 x 103/μl
EOS 0.1–2.0 x 103/μl
Baso 0.0–0.1 x 103/μl
RBC 7.5–10.5 x 106/μl
Hemoglobin 8.6–16.0 g/dl
Platelets 160–660 x 103/μl
PVC 28–47%
Breeding
Breeding Onset Seasonally polyestrous
Fertilization 1 day
Implantation 12–14 days after mating
Gestation 63–65 days
Postpartum Estrus 8–10 weeks
Puberty
Male 7–9 months
Female 6–9 months
Breeding Life 5–10 years
Litter Size 1–6
Birth Weight 90–100 grams
Eyes Open 7–14 days
Wean Start at 4 weeks; completed at 6 to 8 weeks
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites cephalic, saphenous, jugular, femoral

Normative Data for Cattle

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 2000–2800 lbs
Female 1300–1500 lbs
Body Temperature 100–102.5°F
Food Consumption 2-2.7% BW per day; lactating cows consume 40-60% more than dry cows; intake can increase 30% in colder temps or decrease 30% in hot/humid weather
Water Consumption for dairy cattle, for beef cattle
Blood and Oxygen
Systolic Blood Pressure 120–150 mmHg
Diastolic Blood Pressure 75–100 mmHg
Plasma Volume 5% of body weight
Whole Blood Volume 7% of body weight
Plasma pH 7.4
Plasma CO2 35–45 mmol/L
Heart Rate 60–80 beats/min
Tidal Volume 7.0–8.0 ml/kg
Minute Volume Tidal volume x R rate
Respiration Rate 20–40 breaths/min
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 1% blood volume if daily; 10% blood volume if weekly; 20% blood volume if once in a month
Hematology (see below)
Breeding
Breeding Onset bred by 13 months; 1st calf 23–26 months of age
Gestation 285 days
Postpartum Estrus 16 days
Puberty Male
Holstein 9 months
Hereford 11 months
Average 11 months
Puberty Female
Holstein 8 months
Hereford 13 months
Average 11 months
Breeding Life
Holstein 4–10 years
Hereford 6–15 years
Litter Size 1–2
Birth Weight 80–120 lbs
Eyes Open at birth
Wean Holstein 6 weeks or when calf consumes 2 lbs of calf starter for 3 consecutive days
Wean Beef 4–6 weeks
Average # of milk 23,151 lbs
Butterfat 842 lbs
Protein 711 lbs
Test Units Caninea Felineb Bovineb Equinec Alpacad
RBC x 106/µL 5.60–8.40 6.90–10.60 4.50–6.8 6.80–12.90 13.60–23.70d
Hemoglobin g/dL 14.0–21.0 10.5–16.7 7.8–11.4 11.0–19.0 10.2–19.3d
PCV % 40–59 31–51 23–33 32–49 22–45d
HCT‐automated % 39–57 31–48 20–30 ND 22–45d
RBC Hgb g/dL 13.7–21.0 10.2–16.3 7.9–11.2 ND ND
MCV fL 61.0–73.0 39.0–50.0 38–50 34.0–58.0 21.0–28.0d
MCH pg 22.0–26.0 13.0–18.0 15.0–20.0 13.0–19.0 9.0–12.0d
MCHC g/dL 34.0–38.0 33.0–36.0 37.0–41.0 31.0–37.0 42.0–49.0d
CHCM g/dL 33.0–38.0 32.0–36.0 38.0–40.0 ND ND
RDW % 12.0–14.0 14.4–17.0 16.4–21.0 ND ND
Reticulocyte x 106/µL 0.013–0.102 0.000–0.052 ND ND ND
TP g/dL 5.6–8.0 6.7–8.9 7.3–9.2 6.0–8.5 5.5–7.4
Fibrinogen mg/dL ND ND 200–600 100–400 100–500
Platelets x 103/µL 175–500 195–624 217–830 100–400 220–947d
MPV fL 7.9 –14.4 9.1–24.3 5.4–8.3 ND ND
WBC x 103/µL 5.00–14.00 3.40–13.50 4.70–11.10 5.00–12.50 7.10–8.60d
Segs x 103/µL 2.600–10.000 1.500–9.600 1.600–6.100 2.700–6.700 3.500–1.700d
Bands x 103/µL 0.000–0.200 0.000–0.100 0.000–0.100 0.000–0.100 0.000d
Lymphocytes x 103/µL 0.700–4.300 0.600–7.000 1.000–4.900 1.500–5.500 1.100–5.500d
Monocytes x 103/µL 0.110–0.930 0.000–0.500 0.000–1.000 0/000–0.800 0.000–1.000d
Eosinophils x 103/µL 0.100–1.720 0.000–1.400 0.000–1.200 0.000–0.925 0.100–4.300d
Basophils x 103/µL 0.000–0.120 0.000–0.100 0.000–0.300 0.000–0.170 0.000–0.400d
aEstablished at UWVMTH on Advia 120, July 2010
bEstablished at UWVMTH on Advia 120, January 2011
cEstablished at UWVMTH using Baker Serono/Guelph Technicon
dEstablished at Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center on Advia 2120
ND, Not Determined

Normative Data for the Chicken

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 2.2–4.5 kg
Female 1.6–4.1 kg
Body Temperature 40.6–43°C (105-109.4°F)
Food Consumption 110–250 grams/day
Water Consumption 250–500 mls/day
Blood and Oxygen
Plasma Volume 50–60% of total volume
Heart Rate 230-460 beats/min
Respiration Rate
Male 12–18 breaths/min
Female 20–30 breaths/min
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 1% of body weight
Housing Conditions
Temperature 61–81°F (16–27°C)
Humidity 30–70%
Hematology
Leukocyte count 12,000–30,000/μl
Heterophils 3,000–6,000/μl
Lymphocytes 7,000–17,500/μl
Monocytes 150–200/μl
EOS 0–1000/μl
Baso Rare
RBC 2.5–3.5 x 106/μl
Hemoglobin 7.0–13.0 g/dl
Platelets 20–40 x 106/μl
PVC 22–35%
Breeding
Breeding Onset No well-defined estrous cycle
Fertilization 7–10 days following insemination
Egg incubation 20–22 days
Puberty
Male 4.5–6 months
Female 5–6 months
Breeding Life 3–5 years
Birth Weight 20–50 grams
Egg Laying Frequency 1 egg usually laid every 25–26 hours
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites brachial, jugular, and medial metatarsal veins

Normative Data for the Dog

General Information
Adult Weight
Beagle 8–14 kg
Crossbred Hound 11–34 kg
Springer Spaniel 18–23 kg
Body Temperature 37.5–39.2˚C (99.5–102.5˚F)
Food Consumption MER(kcal)/day = 2 (30 weight kg + 70)
Gestation Last trimester of pregnancy, dog should be fed puppy food ad lib
Water Consumption 44–66 ml/kg/day
Gestation ad lib
Blood and Oxygen
Systolic Blood Pressure 131–154 mmHg
Diastolic Blood Pressure 70–90 mmHg
Plasma Volume 46–66% of whole blood
Whole Blood Volume 7% of body weight
Plasma pH 7.33–7.43
Heart Rate 70–180 beats/min
Tidal Volume 10 ml/kg
Minute Volume Tidal volume x R Rate
Respiration Rate 20–40 breaths/min
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 10% of whole blood volume
Housing Conditions
Temperature 18–29˚C (64.4–84.2˚F)
Humidity 30–70%
Hematology
Leukocyte count
Neutrophils (segmented) 2.5–14.3 x 103/μl
Neutrophils (banded) 0.0–0.2 x 103/μl
Lymphocytes 4.87♂, 4.98♀ x 103/μl
Monocytes 0.58♂, 0.64♀ x 103/μl
RBC 6.27♂, 6.47 ♀ x 106/μl
Hemoglobin 13.77♂, 14.34♀ g/dl
Platelets 390.28♂, 386.47♀ x 103/μl
PVC 35–54%
WBC 13.5♂, 13.61♀ x 103/μl
Breeding
Breeding Onset Estrus 2x/yr (9 days)
Pseudopregnancy 6-12 weeks after estrus
Fertilization 4–7 days
Implantation 3 days post fertilization
Gestation 59–63 days post ovulation
Postpartum Estrus 2–3 months
Puberty
Male 4–12 months
Female 6–18 months
Breeding Life 5–7 years
Litter Size 1–15 puppies
Birth Weight 200–300 grams
Eyes Open 10–14 days
Wean 6–8 weeks
Ovulation 2–4 days post onset of cytologic estrus
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites cephalic, lateral saphenous, jugular
Injection Sites and Volumes
Subcutaneous scruff, back, 100–200 ml, <20G
Intramuscular caudal thigh muscles, 2–5 ml, <20G
Intraperitoneal 200–500 ml, <20G
Intravenous cephalic vein, 10–15 ml (slowly), <20G

Normative Data for the Gerbil

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 65–130 grams
Female 55–133 grams
Body Temperature 37–39°C
Food Consumption 5–8g/100g bw/day
Water Consumption 4–7mls/100g bw/day
Blood and Oxygen
Systolic Blood Pressure 150 mmHg
Diastolic Blood Pressure 100 mmHg
Whole Blood Volume 60–85 ml/kg bw
Heart Rate 260–600 (360 avg) beats/min
Respiration Rate 70–120 breaths/min
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 0.6 mls/100g bw
Housing Conditions
Temperature 68–72°F
Humidity 30–70%
Special Concerns Like it warmer
Hematology
Leukocyte count 4.3–21.6 x 103/μl
Neutrophils 20–41%
Lymphocytes 32–97%
Monocytes 0–9%
RBC 7–9 x 106/μl
Hemoglobin 10–17.9 g/dl
Platelets 432–830 x 103/μl
PVC 35–52%
Breeding
Breeding Onset Polyestrous
Gestation 24–26 days
Postpartum Estrus immediate
Puberty
Male 8–10 weeks
Female 8–10 weeks
Breeding Life 9–12 months
Litter Size 5–8
Birth Weight 2–4 grams
Eyes Open 16–21 days
Wean 24–28 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites lateral tail vein, retro-orbital sinus, cardiac puncture

Normative Data for the Guinea Pig

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 900–1200 grams
Female 700–900 grams
Body Temperature 99.0–103.1°F (37.2–39.5°C)
Food Consumption 6 gm/100g bw/day
Water Consumption 10 ml/100g bw/day
Life Span 4–5 years
Blood and Oxygen
Systolic Blood Pressure 77–94 mmHg
Diastolic Blood Pressure 47–58 mmHg
Whole Blood Volume 69–75 ml/kg bw
Plasma pH 7.17–7.53
Plasma CO2 18–26 mmol/L
Heart Rate 230–380 beats/min
Tidal Volume 2.3–5.3 ml/kg
Respiration Rate 40–100 breaths/min
Housing Conditions
Temperature 68–72°F
Humidity 30–70%
Special Concerns 12:12 light:dark
Hematology
Leukocyte count 9.9 x 103/μl
Neutrophils 28–44%
Lymphocytes 39–72%
Monocytes 3–12%
RBC 5.4 x 106/μl
Hemoglobin 13.4 g/dl
Platelets 250–850 x 103/μl
PVC 35–45%
Breeding
Type Estrus Cycle Nonseasonally
Estrus Length 15–17 days
Implantation 6–7 days
Gestation 59–72 days
Postpartum Estrus 60–80% fertile; 2 to 10 hours after parturition
Puberty
Male 90–120 days
Female 60–90 days
Breeding Life
Male 12–18 months
Female 18–24 months
Litter Size 2–5
Birth Weight 60–115 grams
Eyes Open at birth
Wean 14–28 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites cranial vena cava (jugular), lateral saphenous vein (small amount)
Injection Sites and Volumes
Subcutaneous scruff, back, 5–10 ml, <20G
Intramuscular caudal thigh muscles, 0.3 ml, <21G
Intraperitoneal 10–15 ml, <21G
Intravenous ear vein, saphenous vein, <23G

Normative Data for the Syrian Hamster

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 85–140 grams
Female 95–120 grams
Body Temperature 36.2–37.5°C
Food Consumption 10–15 g/day
Water Consumption 30 ml/day
Blood and Oxygen
Mean 97.8 mmHg
Systolic Blood Pressure 109.5 mmHg
Whole Blood Volume 65–80 ml/kg bw
Heart Rate 280–412 beats/min
Tidal Volume 0.8 ml
Minute Volume 64 ml
Stroke Volume 0.047 ml/beat (males)
Respiration Rate 38–110 breaths/min
Experimental Information>
Max Single Bleed 1% of body weight
Housing Conditions
Temperature 21–24°C (69.8–75.2°F)
Humidity 40–60%
Hematology
Leukocyte count 5.0–10.0 x 103/μl
Neutrophils 18.6–32.1%
Lymphocytes 59.4–81.9%
Monocytes 1.4–2.4%
RBC 5.0–9.2 x 106/μl
Hemoglobin 14.6–20.0 g/dl
Platelets 300–570 x 103/μl
PVC 46–52%
Breeding
Breeding Onset Normal seasonal breeding
Pseudopregnancy May occur with an infertile mating
Fertilization 4–5 days
Implantation Day 2 of the estrous cycle
Gestation 15–18 days
Postpartum Estrus 2–18 days after weaning
Puberty
Male 6–8 weeks
Female 8–12 weeks
Breeding Life 6–8 weeks to 15–18 months
Litter Size 4–12
Birth Weight 2–3 grams
Eyes Open 12–14 days
Wean 19–21 days
Blood Collection
Recommended sites orbital sinus, lateral vein of the tarsus, anterior cephalic vein
Injection Sites and Volumes
Subcutaneous scruff, 3–4 ml, <20G
Intramuscular caudal thigh muscles, 0.1 ml, <21G
Intraperitoneal 3–4 ml, <21G
Intravenous femoral or jugular vein (cutdown), 0.3 ml, <25G

Normative Data for the Laboratory Mouse

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 20–40 grams
Female 18–35 grams
Body Temperature 36.5–37.7°C
Food Consumption 15 g/100g/day
Water Consumption 15 ml/100g/day
Blood and Oxygen
Systolic Blood Pressure 133–160 mmHg
Diastolic Blood Pressure 102–110 mmHg
Plasma Volume 3.15 ml/100g bw
Whole Blood Volume 5.85 ml/100g bw
Plasma pH 7.2–7.4
Plasma CO2 21.9 mmol/L
Heart Rate 310–840 beats/min
Tidal Volume 0.18 (0.09-0.38) ml/kg
Minute Volume 24 (11–36) μl/min
Stroke Volume 1.3–2.0 ml/beat
Respiration Rate 163 (60–220) breaths/min
O2 Consumption 1.69 ml O2 /gm/hr
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 10% TBV [Example: for a 25g mouse, Total Blood Volume (TBV) is: 72 ml/kg x .025 kg = 1.8 ml
Gavage Volume 10 ml/kg
Hematology
Leukocyte count 8.4 (5.1–11.6) x 103/μl
Neutrophils 17.9 (6.7–37.2) %
Lymphocytes 69 (63–75) %
Monocytes 1.2 (0.7–2.6) %
RBC 8.7–10.5 x 106/μl
Hemoglobin 13.4 (12.2–16.2) g/dl
Platelets 600 (100–1000) x 103/μl
PVC 44 (42–44) %
Breeding
Breeding Onset 50–60 days
Pseudopregnancy 10–13 days
Fertilization 2 hr post mating
Implantation 4–5 days
Gestation 19–21 days
Postpartum Estrus 24 hrs
Puberty
Male 28–49 days
Female 28–49 days
Breeding Life 12–18 months
Litter Size 4–12
Birth Weight 1–1.5 grams
Eyes Open 12–14 days
Wean 21 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites maxillary, saphenous, pedal vein, tail vein/artery, retro-orbital, jugular, cardiac puncture
Injection Sites and Volumes
Subcutaneous scruff, 2–3 ml, <20G
Intramuscular caudal thigh* muscles, 0.05 ml, <23G
Intraperitoneal 2-3 ml, <21G
Intravenous lateral tail vein, 0.2 ml, <25G

Normative Data for the Laboratory Rabbit

General Information
Adult Weight 2–6 kg (♂ ♀)
Body Temperature 38–40˚C (100.4–104˚F)
Food Consumption (g/day)
Juvenile 100–200
Adult 200–300
Pregnant 300
Lactating 300–400
Water Consumption 100–600 ml/day
Gestation ad lib
Gastrointestinal Transit 4–5 hours
Life Span 5–7 years
Blood and Oxygen
Systolic Blood Pressure 90–130 mmHg
Diastolic Blood Pressure 80–90 mmHg
Plasma Volume 28–50 ml/kg
Whole Blood Volume 55–65 mL
Heart Rate 130–325 beats/min
Tidal Volume 20 ml (4–6 ml/kg)
Minute Volume 0.25 L/min/kg
Respiration Rate 30–60 breaths/min
Arterial Blood pH 7.2–7.5
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 1%
Gavage Volume 15 mL
Housing Conditions
Temperature 16.1–22.2˚C (61–72˚F)
Humidity 30–70%
Special Concerns Heat stressed easily. Must have access to water at all times.
Hematology
Leukocyte count 5.2–12.5 x 103/μl
Neutrophils 1.0–6.0 x 103/μl (25–46%)
Lymphocytes 2.0–9.0 x 103/μl (39–68%)
Monocytes 0–0.5 x 103/μl (1–9%)
RBC 5.0–7.2 x 106/μl
Hemoglobin 9.8–14 g/dl
Platelets 158–650 x 103/μl
PVC 34–43%
WBC 5.1–9.7 cells x 103/μl
Breeding
Breeding Onset Induced ovulation
Pseudopregnancy 18 days
Gestation 30–33 days
Postpartum Estrus N/A
Puberty
Male 6–7 months
Female 5 months
Breeding
Male 5–6 years
Female 3 years
Litter Size 7–9 kits
Birth Weight 30–80 grams
Eyes Open 7 days
Wean 28–42 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites ear lateral vein, ear central artery, jugular vein, cephalic vein, lateral saphenous, cardio centesis
Injection Sites and Volumes
Subcutaneous scruff, flank, 30–50 ml, <20G
Intramuscular caudal thigh or lumbar muscles, 0.5–1.0 ml, 20G
Intraperitoneal 50–100 ml, <20G
Intravenous marginal ear vein, 1–5 ml (slowly), <21G

Normative Data for the Laboratory Rat

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 450–520 grams
Female 250–300 grams
Body Temperature 35.9–37.5°C
Food Consumption 5–6 g/100g bw/day
Water Consumption 10–12 ml/100g bw/day
Blood and Oxygen
Systolic Blood Pressure 88–184 mmHg
Diastolic Blood Pressure 58–145 mmHg
Whole Blood Volume 57.5–69.9 ml/kg
Plasma pH 7.41
Heart Rate 250–450 beats/min
Tidal Volume 0.6–2.0 ml/kg
Minute Volume 75–130 ml/min
Respiration Rate 70–115 breaths/min
O2 Consumption 0.84 ml O2 /gm/hr
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 10% TBV Example: for a 250g rat, Total Blood Volume (TBV): 64 ml/kg x .25 kg = 16 ml
Gavage Volume 10 ml/kg
Hematology
Leukocyte count 3–17 x 103/μl
Neutrophils 13–26%
Lymphocytes 65–83%
Monocytes 0–4%
RBC 5–10 x 106/μl
Hemoglobin 11–19 g/dl
Platelets 200–1500 x 103/μl
PVC 35–57%
Breeding
Breeding Onset 50–60 days
Pseudopregnancy 10–13 days
Implantation 4–5 days
Gestation 20 days
Postpartum Estrus 24 hrs
Puberty
Male 37–67 days
Female 37–67 days
Breeding Life 12–18 months
Litter Size 8–14
Birth Weight 5–6 grams
Eyes Open 10–14 days
Wean 21 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites jugular, saphenous, pedal vein, tail vein/artery, cardiac puncture
Injection Sites and Volumes
Subcutaneous scruff, 5-10 ml, <20G
Intramuscular caudal thigh muscles, 0.3 ml, <21G
Intraperitoneal 5-10 ml, <21G
Intravenous lateral tail vein, 0.5 ml, <23G

Normative Data for Sheep

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 150–450 lbs
Female 90–300 lbs
Body Temperature 100.9–103.8°F
Food Consumption 2–4.5 lbs/day
Water Consumption 2–6 liters/day
Blood and Oxygen
Mean Arterial Pressure 70 mmHg
Plasma Volume 37 ml/kg bw
Whole Blood Volume 49 ml/kg
Heart Rate 50–80 beats/min
Tidal Volume 7–10 ml/kg
Stroke Volume 74 ml/beat
Respiration Rate ~ 40 breaths/min
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 1% blood volume if daily; 10% blood volume if weekly; 20% blood volume if once in a month
Housing Conditions
Special Concerns house in groups
Hematology
Leukocyte count 4–12 x 103/ml
Neutrophils (10–50%) 0.7–6 x 103/ml
Lymphocytes (40–75%) 2–9 x 103/ml
Monocytes (0–6%) 0–0.75 x 103/ml
RBC 9–15 106/ml
Hemoglobin 9–15 g/dl
Platelets 250–750 x 103/ml
PVC 27–45%
Breeding
Estrus 14–19 days
Breeding Onset varies by breed
Implantation 2–4 days
Gestation 147 days
Puberty
Male 5–7 months
Female 5–12 months
Breeding Life
Litter Size 1–4
Birth Weight 5–8 lbs
Eyes Open at birth
Wean 45–60 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites jugular, cephalic, saphenous veins

Normative Data for Swine

General Information
Adult Weight
Male varies by breed
Female varies by breed
Body Temperature 101.6–103.6ºF
Food Consumption 2–3% bw/day
Water Consumption 2.5 L/kg of food consumption
Life Span 10–15 years
Blood and Oxygen
Mean Aortic Pressure 96 +/- 2 mmHg
Pulmonary Arterial Pressure 13.8 +/-0.7 mmHg
Whole Blood Volume ~7% of body weight
Arterial pH 7.5
Arterial CO2 44.5
Heart Rate 70–120 beats/min
Tidal Volume 5–10 ml/kg
Respiration Rate 32–58 breaths/min
Arterial PaO2 96.2 mmHg
Ventilatory Pressure 18–22 cmH20
Blood Volume 61–68 ml/kg
End Tidal CO2 40–50 mmHg
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 1% blood volume if daily; 10% blood volume if weekly; 20% blood volume if once in a month
Housing Conditions
Temperature
<15 kg 79–90ºF
15 – 35 kg 64–79ºF
Large swine 50–77ºF
Humidity 30–70%
Hematology
Leukocyte count 11–22 x 103/μl
Neutrophils (20–70%) 2–15 x 103/μl
Lymphocytes (35–75%) 3.8–16.6 x 103/μl
Monocytes (0–10%) 0–1 x 103/μl
RBC 5–7 x 106/μl
Hemoglobin 9–13 g/dl
Platelets 200–500 x103/μl
PVC 36–43%
Breeding
Estrus Cycle 21 days
Gestation 114 days
Postpartum Estrus 3–9 days
Puberty
Male 6 months
Female 4–9 months
Breeding Life 2 litters/per 5–6 years
Litter Size 4–20 (smaller with mini)
Birth Weight 3 lbs
Eyes Open At birth
Wean 6–8 weeks
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites

*cranial vena cava, *external jugular vein, cephalic vein, auricular veins, superficial cranial epigastric, femoral vein, coccygeal vein

*Bleed on right side so vagus nerve not damaged.