Mouse Colony Management
- BMS Mouse Breeding Core
- Breeder Card template
- Mouse Breeding Performance Checklist
- Mouse Breeding Record System
- Mouse Colony Management Calendar template
- Mouse Genotyping Report template
- Genotype cage card template
- UW-4096, Genotyping of Mice and Rats
Basic mouse breeding information
The parameters below fit the majority of common strains of mice, but note that mouse breeding can be very strain specific. Get information from someone who has experience with a particular strain whenever possible.
age at sexual maturity: 5-8 weeks
reproductive lifespan: 7-12 months
estrus cycle: 4-5 days
gestation period: 19-21 days
average litter size: 6-8 pups
minimum weaning age: about 18-28 days
age of weaning is strain specific; C57BL/6 mice develop slower and generally require a weaning age of 24-28 days.
Mouse breeding record system: The Breeder Card
Mice can be paired at 6-8 weeks of age. When animals are paired for the first time, create a "breeder card" that includes a number unique to the pairing of these two animals. Write the unique number in the upper right-hand corner of the breeder card. This number is in sequential counting order starting from 1. Use a separate set of numbers per strain, so that you can quickly glance at the highest number and know how many breeding pairs you have of any given strain.
All offspring to be genotyped from this mating are given a unique number, called a DNA number, which consists of the breeder card number followed by the next sequential counting number starting from 1. This number is used to uniquely identify that animal for the duration of its time in the facility, and will be used on genotyping records, cage cards, etc. See a genotype report template and example.
Record the following on each breeder card:
Date paired - date mice are paired for breeding
Date separated - if separated, date male is removed from the female cage
DOB - record the date of birth for the pups born
- Born - total number of pups born (helps track productivity of pair)
♂ - number of males that have survived at weaning time (optional)
♀ - number of females that have survived at weaning time (optional)
Date weaned - date the litter was weaned
Repeat steps for each litter born.
When to replace breeders
when mice don't produce a litter in 8 weeks of pairing or within 8 weeks of last litter
when mice do not raise 2-3 consecutive litters
when litter size rapidly decreases for 2 consecutive litters
The RARC Mouse Breeding Performance Checklist can be used to identify potential problems in your colony.
Mouse colony management calendar
To create a mouse colony management calendar:
Establish a code, pairing color stickers with a corresponding event. For example, red = born; yellow = tail (PCR collection) and ear punch (identification); blue = wean; and green = nothing.
Once a litter is born, chart the birth date and upcoming management activities by placing a color sticker on the appropriate date on a calendar.
Each week look at the calendar to see what tasks have to be completed.
Place the appropriate color sticker on the cage card for that week's activity.
This schedule allows for tissue collection for genotyping and identification. If you do not need to genotype your mice, do nothing this week.
Occasionally mice are born towards the end of the week and may not be ready to be weaned on Monday. If this is the case, allow for a few more days or until the mice are 18-24 days. Weaning age depends on strain of mice. Likewise if the mice are born in the beginning of the week, you will need to wean on Monday.
It's good practice to check the colony on Mondays. Look at the color dot so you can plan your weekly tasks accordingly.
Breeding information services
Manual and courses
- The Jackson Laboratory has a great free PDF manual about breeding mice that can be downloaded: Breeding Strategies for Maintaining Mice Colonies
Take the Mouse Breeding Colony Management course through RARC training
Strain rederivation and cryopreservation services
The UW-Madison Genome Editing and Animal Models Core offers strain rederivation and embryo or sperm cryopreservation on campus for a low cost.
BRMS Mouse Breeding Core Colony Management can provide you with reliable, economical and efficient breeding colonies of mice to support research projects.
Genotyping and identification
See policy UW-4096, Genotyping of Mice and Rats
Transnetyx is a molecular diagnostics company that offers an automated genotyping system for Transgenic, knockout and knockin mouse strains.