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Species: General Species Information

Cat Cattle Chicken Dog Gerbil Guinea Pig Hamster Mouse Rabbit Rat Sheep Swine

Normative Data for the Cat

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 9–14 lbs
Female 9–11 lbs
Body Temperature 100–102.2°F
Food Consumption 60–80 Kcal/kg/day
Water Consumption 60 ml/kg/day
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 17% of body weight
Housing Conditions
Temperature 64–84°F
Humidity 30–70%
Breeding
Breeding Onset Seasonally polyestrous
Fertilization 1 day
Implantation 12–14 days after mating
Gestation 63–65 days
Postpartum Estrus 8–10 weeks
Puberty
Male 7–9 months
Female 6–9 months
Breeding Life 5–10 years
Litter Size 1–6
Birth Weight 90–100 grams
Eyes Open 7–14 days
Wean Start at 4 weeks; completed at 6 to 8 weeks
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites cephalic, saphenous, jugular, femoral

Normative Data for Cattle

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 2000–2800 lbs
Female 1300–1500 lbs
Body Temperature 100–102.5°F
Food Consumption 2-2.7% BW per day; lactating cows consume 40-60% more than dry cows; intake can increase 30% in colder temps or decrease 30% in hot/humid weather
Water Consumption for dairy cattle, for beef cattle
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 1% blood volume if daily; 10% blood volume if weekly; 20% blood volume if once in a month
Breeding
Breeding Onset bred by 13 months; 1st calf 23–26 months of age
Gestation 285 days
Postpartum Estrus 16 days
Puberty Male
Holstein 9 months
Hereford 11 months
Average 11 months
Puberty Female
Holstein 8 months
Hereford 13 months
Average 11 months
Breeding Life
Holstein 4–10 years
Hereford 6–15 years
Litter Size 1–2
Birth Weight 80–120 lbs
Eyes Open at birth
Wean Holstein 6 weeks or when calf consumes 2 lbs of calf starter for 3 consecutive days
Wean Beef 4–6 weeks
Average # of milk 23,151 lbs
Butterfat 842 lbs
Protein 711 lbs

Normative Data for the Chicken

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 2.2–4.5 kg
Female 1.6–4.1 kg
Body Temperature 40.6–43°C (105-109.4°F)
Food Consumption 110–250 grams/day
Water Consumption 250–500 mls/day
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 1% of body weight
Housing Conditions
Temperature 61–81°F (16–27°C)
Humidity 30–70%
Breeding
Breeding Onset No well-defined estrous cycle
Fertilization 7–10 days following insemination
Egg incubation 20–22 days
Puberty
Male 4.5–6 months
Female 5–6 months
Breeding Life 3–5 years
Birth Weight 20–50 grams
Egg Laying Frequency 1 egg usually laid every 25–26 hours
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites brachial, jugular, and medial metatarsal veins

Normative Data for the Dog

General Information
Adult Weight
Beagle 8–14 kg
Crossbred Hound 11–34 kg
Springer Spaniel 18–23 kg
Body Temperature 37.5–39.2˚C (99.5–102.5˚F)
Food Consumption MER(kcal)/day = 2 (30 weight kg + 70)
Gestation Last trimester of pregnancy, dog should be fed puppy food ad lib
Water Consumption 44–66 ml/kg/day
Gestation ad lib
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 10% of whole blood volume
Housing Conditions
Temperature 18–29˚C (64.4–84.2˚F)
Humidity 30–70%
Breeding
Breeding Onset Estrus 2x/yr (9 days)
Pseudopregnancy 6-12 weeks after estrus
Fertilization 4–7 days
Implantation 3 days post fertilization
Gestation 59–63 days post ovulation
Postpartum Estrus 2–3 months
Puberty
Male 4–12 months
Female 6–18 months
Breeding Life 5–7 years
Litter Size 1–15 puppies
Birth Weight 200–300 grams
Eyes Open 10–14 days
Wean 6–8 weeks
Ovulation 2–4 days post onset of cytologic estrus
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites cephalic, lateral saphenous, jugular
Injection Sites and Volumes
Subcutaneous scruff, back, 100–200 ml, <20G
Intramuscular caudal thigh muscles, 2–5 ml, <20G
Intraperitoneal 200–500 ml, <20G
Intravenous cephalic vein, 10–15 ml (slowly), <20G

Normative Data for the Gerbil

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 65–130 grams
Female 55–133 grams
Body Temperature 37–39°C
Food Consumption 5–8g/100g bw/day
Water Consumption 4–7mls/100g bw/day
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 0.6 mls/100g bw
Housing Conditions
Temperature 68–72°F
Humidity 30–70%
Special Concerns Like it warmer
Breeding
Breeding Onset Polyestrous
Gestation 24–26 days
Postpartum Estrus immediate
Puberty
Male 8–10 weeks
Female 8–10 weeks
Breeding Life 9–12 months
Litter Size 5–8
Birth Weight 2–4 grams
Eyes Open 16–21 days
Wean 24–28 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites lateral tail vein, retro-orbital sinus, cardiac puncture

Normative Data for the Guinea Pig

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 900–1200 grams
Female 700–900 grams
Body Temperature 99.0–103.1°F (37.2–39.5°C)
Food Consumption 6 gm/100g bw/day
Water Consumption 10 ml/100g bw/day
Life Span 4–5 years
Housing Conditions
Temperature 68–72°F
Humidity 30–70%
Special Concerns 12:12 light:dark
Breeding
Type Estrus Cycle Nonseasonally
Estrus Length 15–17 days
Implantation 6–7 days
Gestation 59–72 days
Postpartum Estrus 60–80% fertile; 2 to 10 hours after parturition
Puberty
Male 90–120 days
Female 60–90 days
Breeding Life
Male 12–18 months
Female 18–24 months
Litter Size 2–5
Birth Weight 60–115 grams
Eyes Open at birth
Wean 14–28 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites cranial vena cava (jugular), lateral saphenous vein (small amount)
Injection Sites and Volumes
Subcutaneous scruff, back, 5–10 ml, <20G
Intramuscular caudal thigh muscles, 0.3 ml, <21G
Intraperitoneal 10–15 ml, <21G
Intravenous ear vein, saphenous vein, <23G

Normative Data for the Syrian Hamster

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 85–140 grams
Female 95–120 grams
Body Temperature 36.2–37.5°C
Food Consumption 10–15 g/day
Water Consumption 30 ml/day
Experimental Information>
Max Single Bleed 1% of body weight
Housing Conditions
Temperature 21–24°C (69.8–75.2°F)
Humidity 40–60%
Breeding
Breeding Onset Normal seasonal breeding
Pseudopregnancy May occur with an infertile mating
Fertilization 4–5 days
Implantation Day 2 of the estrous cycle
Gestation 15–18 days
Postpartum Estrus 2–18 days after weaning
Puberty
Male 6–8 weeks
Female 8–12 weeks
Breeding Life 6–8 weeks to 15–18 months
Litter Size 4–12
Birth Weight 2–3 grams
Eyes Open 12–14 days
Wean 19–21 days
Blood Collection
Recommended sites orbital sinus, lateral vein of the tarsus, anterior cephalic vein
Injection Sites and Volumes
Subcutaneous scruff, 3–4 ml, <20G
Intramuscular caudal thigh muscles, 0.1 ml, <21G
Intraperitoneal 3–4 ml, <21G
Intravenous femoral or jugular vein (cutdown), 0.3 ml, <25G

Normative Data for the Laboratory Mouse

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 20–40 grams
Female 18–35 grams
Body Temperature 36.5–37.7°C
Food Consumption 15 g/100g/day
Water Consumption 15 ml/100g/day
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 10% TBV [Example: for a 25g mouse, Total Blood Volume ( TBV) is: 72 ml/kg x .025 kg = 1.8 ml
Gavage Volume 10 ml/kg
Breeding
Breeding Onset 50–60 days
Pseudopregnancy 10–13 days
Fertilization 2 hr post mating
Implantation 4–5 days
Gestation 19–21 days
Postpartum Estrus 24 hrs
Puberty
Male 28–49 days
Female 28–49 days
Breeding Life 12–18 months
Litter Size 4–12
Birth Weight 1–1.5 grams
Eyes Open 12–14 days
Wean 21 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites maxillary, saphenous, pedal vein, tail vein/artery, retro-orbital, jugular, cardiac puncture
Injection Sites and Volumes
*Use the smallest size needle gauge possible when performing injections. Needle size example – 22 gauge is larger than 24 gauge
*Recommended max dose
Subcutaneous scruff, 40 ml/kg or 0.04 ml/g
Intramuscular caudal thigh* muscles, 1 ml/kg or 0.001 ml/g
Intraperitoneal 20 ml/kg or 0.02 ml/g
Intravenous lateral tail vein, 10 ml/kg or 0.01 ml/g

Normative Data for the Laboratory Rabbit

General Information
Adult Weight 2–6 kg (♂ ♀)
Body Temperature 38–40˚C (100.4–104˚F)
Food Consumption (g/day)
Juvenile 100–200
Adult 200–300
Pregnant 300
Lactating 300–400
Water Consumption 100–600 ml/day
Gestation ad lib
Gastrointestinal Transit 4–5 hours
Life Span 5–7 years
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 1%
Gavage Volume 15 mL
Housing Conditions
Temperature 16.1–22.2˚C (61–72˚F)
Humidity 30–70%
Special Concerns Heat stressed easily. Must have access to water at all times.
Breeding
Breeding Onset Induced ovulation
Pseudopregnancy 18 days
Gestation 30–33 days
Postpartum Estrus N/A
Puberty
Male 6–7 months
Female 5 months
Breeding
Male 5–6 years
Female 3 years
Litter Size 7–9 kits
Birth Weight 30–80 grams
Eyes Open 7 days
Wean 28–42 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites ear lateral vein, ear central artery, jugular vein, cephalic vein, lateral saphenous, cardio centesis
Injection Sites and Volumes
Subcutaneous scruff, flank, 30–50 ml, <20G
Intramuscular caudal thigh or lumbar muscles, 0.5–1.0 ml, 20G
Intraperitoneal 50–100 ml, <20G
Intravenous marginal ear vein, 1–5 ml (slowly), <21G

Normative Data for the Laboratory Rat

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 450–520 grams
Female 250–300 grams
Body Temperature 35.9–37.5°C
Food Consumption 5–6 g/100g bw/day
Water Consumption 10–12 ml/100g bw/day
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 10% TBV Example: for a 250g rat, Total Blood Volume ( TBV): 64 ml/kg x .25 kg = 16 ml
Gavage Volume 10 ml/kg
Breeding
Breeding Onset 50–60 days
Pseudopregnancy 10–13 days
Implantation 4–5 days
Gestation 20 days
Postpartum Estrus 24 hrs
Puberty
Male 37–67 days
Female 37–67 days
Breeding Life 12–18 months
Litter Size 8–14
Birth Weight 5–6 grams
Eyes Open 10–14 days
Wean 21 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites jugular, saphenous, pedal vein, tail vein/artery, cardiac puncture
Injection Sites and Volumes
*Use the smallest size needle gauge possible when performing injections. Needle size example – 22 gauge is larger than 24 gauge
*Recommended max dose
Subcutaneous scruff, 40 ml/kg 0r 0.04 mls/g
Intramuscular caudal thigh muscles, 1 ml/kg or 0.001 ml/g
Intraperitoneal 20 ml/kg or 0.02 ml/g
Intravenous lateral tail vein, 10 ml/kg or 0.01 ml/g

Normative Data for Sheep

General Information
Adult Weight
Male 150–450 lbs
Female 90–300 lbs
Body Temperature 100.9–103.8°F
Food Consumption 2–4.5 lbs/day
Water Consumption 2–6 liters/day
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 1% blood volume if daily; 10% blood volume if weekly; 20% blood volume if once in a month
Housing Conditions
Special Concerns house in groups
Breeding
Estrus 14–19 days
Breeding Onset varies by breed
Implantation 2–4 days
Gestation 147 days
Puberty
Male 5–7 months
Female 5–12 months
Breeding Life
Litter Size 1–4
Birth Weight 5–8 lbs
Eyes Open at birth
Wean 45–60 days
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites jugular, cephalic, saphenous veins

Normative Data for Swine

General Information
Adult Weight
Male varies by breed
Female varies by breed
Body Temperature 101.6–103.6ºF
Food Consumption 2–3% bw/day
Water Consumption 2.5 L/kg of food consumption
Life Span 10–15 years
Experimental Information
Max Single Bleed 1% blood volume if daily; 10% blood volume if weekly; 20% blood volume if once in a month
Housing Conditions
Temperature
<15 kg 79–90ºF
15 – 35 kg 64–79ºF
Large swine 50–77ºF
Humidity 30–70%
Breeding
Estrus Cycle 21 days
Gestation 114 days
Postpartum Estrus 3–9 days
Puberty
Male 6 months
Female 4–9 months
Breeding Life 2 litters/per 5–6 years
Litter Size 4–20 (smaller with mini)
Birth Weight 3 lbs
Eyes Open At birth
Wean 6–8 weeks
Blood Collection
Recommended Sites

*cranial vena cava, *external jugular vein, cephalic vein, auricular veins, superficial cranial epigastric, femoral vein, coccygeal vein

*Bleed on right side so vagus nerve not damaged.

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